Buying a Fleshlight is something that over 2 million people have done at this point, so if you don’t have one yet, you’ve probably been living under a rock or jerking off into a sock. That shit is just sad, especially considering how customizable a Fleshlight is. The days of relying on your own creativity are over, giving way to some of the most remarkable and affordable sex toys in the industry. As a commanding force in the market, the famous Fleshlight brand has earned its lofty reputation for several good reasons.
In fact, the innovative company has gained such an incredible following that its designers have been forced to come up with some pretty crazy stuff. However, in the rush to appease all you perverts, the plethora of sleeve texture options has become somewhat cumbersome. Navigating through the options can seem impossible, most notably for folks who aren’t yet familiar with the brand’s prowess.
- Fleshlight Stamina Training Unit
- Replicates the sensations of sexual relations and forces you to be better in bed
- Will train you to last like a pornstar
- Best experienced with GUN OIL H2O WATER BASED LUBE
- Fleshlight Ice
- Stretchy canal can be stretched to accommodate most men
- Sleeve is concealed within a case which offers safe and discreet storage
- Temperature-responsive for furthering your lifelike play
- Fleshlight Quickshot
- Compact open-ended male masturbator
- Twin-orifice unit - enter through either end
- Totally travel-friendly for trips away
Searching high and low for a well-made masturbator can be tedious to say the least; and if you don’t do it right, you could end up wasting a lot of your hard-earned money. Fuck that noise! There are plenty of inventive fuck holes to choose from, but unless you have some sort of comprehensive buying guide, you’re shit out of luck. And since new stuff is introduced to the market at the speed of light these days, getting ahead of the game makes more sense than blindly shopping online for the next big thing.
- This Year’s Top 5 Best-Selling Fleshlight Units
- 1. The Stamina Training Unit (STU)
- 2. The Ice
- 3. The Quickshot
- 4. The Turbo
- 5. The Fleshlight Girls Collection
- Considerations For Choosing The Best Fleshlight Sleeve Texture On The Market
- The Top 3 Sleeve Textures of 2018
- The Hard Questions for An Easy Orgasm
- Fleshlight Maintenance Must-Knows
- Making a Dick-a-Licious Difference with Your Toy
- The Famous Fleshlight: Did You Know?
This Year’s Top 5 Best-Selling Fleshlight Units
So, why is buying the perfect Fleshlight often harder than you are? Because the brand offers over 100 different sleeve textures, and nobody wants to spend money on the wrong shit. That number includes things like the Freaks lineup and the Fleshlight Girls collection, two top contenders on the masturbatory market today.
The Freaks lineup features orifices and textures that are literally out of this world – werewolves, aliens, vampires, and cyborgs just to name a few. The Fleshlight Girls collection is something that, until recently, was totally unheard of in the industry – sleeves that are expertly molded after the internal intricacies of some of the world’s top porn stars. Now do you understand why this shit is so hard?
There’s literally something in the Fleshlight inventory for everyone on the planet, which may explain why the brand’s popularity has reached legendary heights. Sorting through the rousing rubble can be difficult, which is why this guide has been created. It’s a tough job, but somebody’s got to do it. Among the plethora of options out there, the following 5 are continually the hottest selling ones in their catalogue:
This sexy bastard is designed to provide such an intense sensation that it forces you to cum, thereby training your dick to last longer over time when it’s used regularly. The texture is incredibly dense, with a variety of unique coils and nodes, and a tightness that reminds you of your first time. Not recommended for casual use or couple’s play, the STU will make you feel like a chump if you’re not careful how you use it.
Made with voyeurs in mind, the Ice is completely see-through, allowing users to enjoy the sight of their family jewels being jerked into submission. Perfect for solo artists and dominant duos, this badass beast of burden also features a unique sleeve and tantalizing tightness that work in tandem with the visual aid it provides. Popular mostly for its innovative transparent appearance, the Ice remains a top seller despite it’s familial competition.
As one of the most compact masturbators in the Fleshlight lineup, the Quickshot is for the open-minded pervert on the go. Being as it’s hollow on both ends and thus requires much less cleanup and maintenance, this bitch can give a full 360-degree massage to your man parts in the quickest and most convenient way possible. Certainly not for everybody, the Quickshot is highly recommended for men who prefer a side of efficiency with their orgasms.
This bitch is about as close as you’ll get to a mind-altering blowjob without having to pay for dinner or watch out for the cops. Voted as the most realistic and satisfying alternative to oral sex, this self-driven dick sucker is designed to please even the men who think they know it all. With three separate points of initial insertion and a special suction capability, the Turbo is like the Wu-Tang of sex toys: It ain’t nothin’ to fuck with.
Although this one consists of dozens of different toys, the premise of them all is the same. Each one is fashioned after the vagina, mouth, or asshole of a popular porn star. Not only is the orifice personalized but the internal texture is as well. Moreover, these fuck sticks are perfect for use with the brand’s affiliated VR content and other live sex sessions. What can be better than that?
Considerations For Choosing The Best Fleshlight Sleeve Texture On The Market
Known globally for their wide variety of male masturbators, sexy accessories, and unique toy designs, the Fleshlight company has catapulted itself to the top of the intimacy aid industry, with customers ranging greatly in age, gender, and sexual appetite. However, do to the overwhelming demand by the world’s most depraved minds, the brand has been required to churn out more products than the average consumer can handle at once.
Generally speaking, all Fleshlights are designed with the same purpose in mind. Comprised of similar materials and featuring comparable ergonomics, the average Fleshlight fuck stick offers a revolutionary ride using a durable and discreet outer casing that resembles a standard heavy-duty flashlight. Inside rests a customizable skin-safe sleeve that’s made from the brand’s patented SuperSkin material. Each sleeve is removable and can be easily swapped out with any of the others in their inventory. And that’s where the problems begin.
Without some of this advice, you might end up like everyone else who visits their website to buy a sex toy: sifting through numerous pages of products only to close the tab and go back to beating your meat with a tired palm. Perusing misleading customer reviews won’t get you anywhere, mostly because every man has his own unique desires when it comes to the type of experience they’re looking for. You know what they say: “Opinions are like assholes, and everybody’s got one.”
In fact, Fleshlight has a few assholes of their own. Each of their toys can be further customized based on the type of orifice (or opening) you choose. The brand offers mouths, pussies, anuses, and even a few non-anatomical options for the super freaks who want to fuck with freedom. Regardless of the opening, the hole is perfectly tight and textured just right. But, if you spend too much time figuring out what you want, you’ll be left with too little time to enjoy what you buy. The buck stops here, folks.
On a More Personal Note
Now, keep in mind that each of these toys (and most of the other ones in the Fleshlight inventory) are compatible with the Launch device – a fully automated machine that allows for hands-free fucking while enjoying shit like sexy games, live chat, virtual reality experiences, and long-distance love-making. Although the Launch is obviously sold separately, it’s definitely a must-have addition to your Fleshlight collection if you’re looking for some high-tech pleasure.
Since buying a sex toy and picking out your favorite accessories is an extremely personal purchase, I’ll try not to get too bossy here. However, the sheer number of sleeve options available for each of the toys offered by Fleshlight can be excruciatingly complicated. While designing your ideal sex slave from scratch might seem like a lot of fun, it’s not for the faint of heart. Remember that each toy has its own unique sleeve, but they can all be interchanged. So, start out with something amazing but keep your mind open to the possibilities.
The Top 3 Sleeve Textures of 2018
Your basic Fleshlight model is comprised of four simple components: an outer casing, the end-cap, a protective top cap, and of course the interchangeable sleeve. While there are several copycats that are currently flooding the market, only this brand can promise such high quality and expertly designed craftsmanship. In fact, this coveted toy has become so popular that the word “Fleshlight” is now being thrown around as a generic term for handheld male masturbators.
You know what they say: “Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery.” An original FL will measure a hefty 10 inches in length and will have about 3.5 inches of girth. The sleeves will feel close to real human skin (especially when the sleeve warmer is used), and the whole s
hebang will feature an ergonomic shape that’s suitable for nearly any man’s hand as well as a natural-feeling texture that promotes the organic movements of the human body in motion. But don’t take my word for it; look around on your own and compare what’s out there. Guarantee you will notice a difference immediately.
As mentioned, the famous Fleshlight brand sleeve comes in a variety of colors, shapes, sizes, and features hundreds of different textures designed to tease, tickle, or torture your dick into submission. It’s always suggested that new users peruse the inventory to get an idea as the sheer number of options available, not to mention it’s a terrific opportunity to take a look at the shapes and textures in stock.
In the meantime, check out the top Fleshlight sleeve textures of the season:
The Dirty Dozen of the Fleshlight Girls Collection
There are troves of filthy females who are just nasty enough to agree on having their most intimate parts molded by an undoubtedly horny professional artist. These women carry the best-known names in the pornography industry, and the reasons for their popularity can be easily seen while viewing one their many videos. With that said, some of the Fleshlight Girls have canal-inspired molds that feel much better than others. Of the top contenders, the following dirty dozen are the cream of the crotch crop:
- Stoya’s sleeves are just as penis-primed as she is, with tons of mystery and intrigue between every nook and cranny. With a somewhat relaxed opening met by an intensely tight canal which features several gentle teeth, nobs, and ridges, it’s no wonder why this sleeve is selling out faster by the day.
- Riley Reid
- Ms. Reid is one of the hottest of the hot – the Classic American beauty with a heart of gold. The same can be said about her amazing sleeve texture as well, which features three separate pleasure pads that each offer a unique sensation using squared-off nodules and pristine pleasure rings.
- Brandi Love
- Brandi’s sleeve texture is a lot like the vortex she creates in the bedroom. Twisted in all the right ways, this crazy insertable material twirls around the shaft after pleasing the penis’s corona with perfected tightness. Succumb the ridges as they swallow up every drop of jizz you produce.
- Eva Lovia
- This sleeve is inspired not only by the internal texture of Eva’s body but also by her unique personality. Full of surprises which include tightly twisting pleasure coils, soft yet supple tickling nodes, and straightened ridges that work together to juice your junk like the professional porn star it was designed by.
- Alexis Texas
- Considered to be one of the most realistic feeling textures in the Fleshlight Girls lineup, the Ms. Texas sleeve is a lot like an actual human vagina, without the need for extra ridges, coils, or nodes. Still, it’s organically smooth texture shouldn’t discourage you. The ergonomic formula God used to make her pussy and asshole a top seller is the same formula used to capture the greatness.
- Jenna Haze
- Imagine slamming your manhood into the softest bowl of skittles known in existence. The Jenna Haze sleeve texture is like cock candy, with the perfect number of little nobs to keep you cumming back for more unless, of course, you go into a daze over Jenna’s haze.
- Lisa Ann
- Known as one of the vets of porn, Lisa Ann’s still got it (and then some). Her molded sleeve texture is a lot like that of Jenna Haze, only it’s made to accommodate larger penises and features a much more relaxed opening that tightens up as you dive deeper. The nodes inside are a bit more intense as well, making this the ideal sleeve for men with desensitized dicks.
- Kendra Sunderlan
- Kendra’s sleeve texture is like something out of a science-fiction movie – a carnal carnival of sexy twists, turns, ridges, bumps, and nodules that work together seamlessly to provide the kind of thrill ride that made Ms. Sunderlan famous in the first place.
- Asa Akira
- Exotic is one of the first words that comes to mind when describing anything about Asa Akira, and that includes the shape and feel of her molded sleeve texture. There’s nothing simple about it: serpent-like and smooth in all the right places while also being able to play rough.
- Christy Mack
- Enjoy the wild and wonderful world of Ms. Mack’s magnificent manhole. This bad boy has all the most popular features rolled into one, with an end section that teases the tip of the penis with precision. After all, we all need to get wet and wild from time to time.
- Misty Stone
- They say that there’s nothing wrong with a little bump and grind, and they’re right – if they’re talking about the Misty Stone Fleshlight Girls sleeve texture, that is. Beginning with a few well-placed bumps and ending with a series of rough and tumble ridges to grind your dick to a halt, this smooth operator is quickly becoming a masturbatory mainstay.
- Romi Rain
- The brand hit one out of the park when they molded the pussy of Ms. Romi Rain. Her sleeve’s texture features the World Series of details, complete with a row of gentle nodes followed by a quick shot of ridges that are capped off by a puzzle-like pattern that finishes you off homerun style. Score!
Keep in mind that all the Fleshlight Girls are super sought-after stars, but that doesn’t necessarily mean their molded textures feel the best when compared to the others. While the women who inspired the textures in this collection are beyond hot, there’s always a bit of competition. We shouldn’t want it any other way. Moreover, some (not all) of the sleeves in this collection come in vagina, butt, or even mouth orifices, with varied textures thereof according to the one you choose. See why this choosing shit is so difficult?
The Freaks Lineup
If you happen to be one of those guys who likes to spice things up or get kinky in the bedroom, the Fleshlight Freaks Lineup may be just what you need to turn your fantasy into a reality without all the unwanted consequences (like injury, death, dismemberment, or legal issues). The Freaks collection features the following freakishly delicious options:
- The Drac – a coiled monstrosity of sexiness that is designed to resemble Dracula’s bat wing.
- The Cyborg – an ultra-high-tech version of an organic vagina, plus the pleasure of a well-appointed twist.
- The Frankenstein – twisted at first and then jagged to finish, this man-made marvel is as freaky as it gets.
- The Zombie – with both a vagina and a mouth sleeve texture available, it’s possible to become once bitten but twice shy with this one.
- The Predator – this self-explanatory sleeve features an orifice that resembles the character from the popular movie, “Predator.” Additionally, it also offers a playground of pussy power that’s designed to force the ejaculate right out of your junk – like it or not.
- The Reaper – with a sleeve texture like this one, you’ll put all other toys to death once you feel the intense, death-defying details that lie within its catacombs.
- The Alien – having an appearance of a quintessential alien is one thing, but if this is what fucking an extraterrestrial feels like, human women better step their game up.
- The Bigfoot – if a sasquatch had a pussy, there would be a man who wanted to fuck it. That’s understandable, especially considering how this sleeve’s texture is like the Yellow Brick Road for dicks.
- The Yeti – perfect for adventurous sight-seers and similar to the Bigfoot sleeve’s texture, the Yeti’s patterning is slightly less dense and features an opaque design to aid in voyeurism.
NOTE: Not all the Freaks Fleshlight sleeves come designed as more than one orifice. However, this revolutionary lineup does have all the same designs for women in the form of freakish dildos. Hubba, Hubba.
The Flight Series
As one of the most popular handheld masturbator sleeve collections in the Fleshlight brand’s inventory, the Flight Series is a group of super sexy and sleek devices. Each one comes in three different models with three distinct textures and are ideal for traveling and discretion. The series includes the following options:
- The Aviator – slim, sexy, and clear for your viewing pleasure, this Flight Series version is chalk full of see-through texture rings that line the sleeve’s chamber which is large enough for penises of 8 inches in length.
- The Instructor – with a non-anatomical orifice, the Instructor version is ideal for private perverts who enjoy having a ticklish shaft and a neglected corona.
- The Pilot – aerodynamic and ergonomic, the Pilot version in the series features a sleeve texture that pushes back, creating a superb sucking sensation that’s like nothing else on the market.
The Flight Series is cool because, not only are the sleeve textures pretty impressive, but they are all compatible with the brand’s shower mount accessory (and the Launch; did I mention that?). Rather than taking a trip with a puny pocket pussy, pack one of these conveniently sized cock massagers into your carry-on and do it like a goddamn adult.
*Reminder: each of the Fleshlight units has the ability to house any of the sleeves you choose from any of the collections mentioned here. Furthermore, all Fleshlight handheld masturbators (and their tailored sleeves) are made to work with the high-tech Launch machine that’s made from the same brand. Even better: The Launch can operate with the Kiiroo Onyx 2 and the Kiiroo Pearl 2 as well. At this point, you have no more excuses if you’re not getting the best sex of your life.
The Top Two Runners Up
Fleshlight is a household name for numerous reasons, including their offerings of varied sex toys for both men and women. Aside from their cornucopia of industry-leading sleeves and porn star-inspired textures, this massive market force has even more to consider. Behold, the brand’s top selling toys that don’t feature their tell-tell sleeve textures:
The Fleshjack Series
Just a quick note here: the Fleshjack Series has become a huge part of the Fleshlight name. Although the brand is most commonly known as a toy manufacturer geared towards men, the Fleshjack lineup of toys is designed specifically for women (and/or customers who are into seriously freaky anal play). Molded after the biggest male porn stars, these delectable dicks are veiny, voluptuous, and very hard . . . to pass up.
Each one has features that are similar to the standard Fleshlight and its subsequent collections – same SuperSkin material, same high-end manufacturing, same durability, same freaky inspirations. The only thing is that these bitches use no textured sleeve, require zero casings, and won’t work properly with the Fleshlight Launch or other Bluetooth compatible toys. Looks like the wonderful world of women’s toys finally has some catching up to do.
This gentle genital genius is another one made for the records. Featuring dual battery-powered inserts that vibrate at various speeds and in different patterns, this son of a bitch can make a live lover obsolete. It can be used in solo mode or added to the Fleshlight party quickly and easily, not to mention seamlessly thanks to its high-tech electronic operating system. Just think of a standard Fleshlight, but add vibration to it – that’s the Vibro for ya.
This device is a hot seller because it comes in two distinct orifices – ass and pussy. There’s even a combo pack available that includes extra batteries, a small water-based lube sample, and both orifices. Best of all, each of the orifices feature a unique texture that can only be described as magnificent. Just turn on the variable speed vibrations and let the party start (and end) with a satisfying climax.
Picking the Cherries
With so many options, how in the hell is anyone expected to know which product to buy? When your budget allows for only one item, which one will you choose? Picking the cherries and scraping the cream from the top is easier when you quickly narrow down your search to include nothing but the toys that are right for your no-no spot.
Fortunately, most of the Fleshlight brand’s inventory is familiar and fun to use. But before you fall into the rabid rabbit hole and get too comfortable or confident, consider the following to avoid getting ripped off (or worse):
- The Size of Your Dick
- Not all Fleshlights are the same size.
- The Sensitivity of Your Penis
- Some of the devices feature more intense textures than others.
- The State of Your Corona
- Certain sleeves are designed to provide corona AND shaft stimulation.
- The Visuals
- The transparent design of some sleeves makes it possible to get a good view of the action, while some other sleeves are meant to keep shit under wraps.
- The Time Constraints
- The intensity of the sleeve you choose will directly affect how long it takes you to experience orgasm.
- The Depth of Your Depravity
- Not all Fleshlight designs are created equally, and some are damn sure not for the faint of heart.
- The Company You Keep
- There are plenty of couple’s play options available from this brand.
- The Orifice You Prefer
- Between a mouth, pussy, asshole, and non-anatomical opening, there’s enough variety to make a porn star blush. And that Freaks lineup, you already know.
- The Money in the Bank
- Each toy from this brand carries with it a different price tag, so pay attention to the numbers and try to make your money go further.
- The Secrets You Keep
- Not all products from this brand are compact, and many don’t have a carrying case or storage pouch included.
- The Size of Your Dick
Use those considerations to help you figure out what kind of toy would do the most good. There is no one-size-fits-all toy on the market yet, but with a little research and self-consideration, it should be much easier to pin down the perfect product.
The Hard Questions for An Easy Orgasm
Once you have your requirements nailed down harder than your last lover, begin candidly asking yourself the following questions. Don’t worry; nobody is interested in your answers but you.
- Do I like slow, sensual sex or do I prefer something extremely intense?
- NOTE: The more texturized the toy’s sleeve texture is, the more likely it is that you’ll climax quickly.
- Do I need visuals, or will my partner or imagination suffice?
- NOTE: Toys will be available with a standard appearance, a transparent design, Bluetooth compatibility, or downloadable porn content for a variety of stimulating experiences.
- Do I have an unusual fantasy?
- NOTE: Some of this brand’s stuff is about as kinky as it gets, but other products in the lineup are very mainstream.
- Do I like to have sex or masturbate in numerous places?
- NOTE: Be sure to check out this brand’s accessory game so you can fuck like a duck in the bath, shower, pool, or hot tub.
- Am I in a relationship?
- NOTE: There are plenty of social options with the higher tech toys in this brand’s inventory, including long-distance relationship enhancers with live chat sessions, video strip teases, and even real-time VR porn.
- Do I need help keeping my dirty little secrets from peering eyes?
- NOTE: Not all units are compact, nor do they all have proper storage. However, each product is shipped in discrete packaging and comes from a fully encrypted website.
- Do I have it in the budget to afford what I need for a great experience?
- NOTE: Some of the products in this brand’s inventory work best when used with an accessory or similar device. Luckily, Fleshlight gives a discount when more than one sleeve is purchased in a single order.
- Am I opposed to being adventurous sexually?
- NOTE: Many of the Fleshlight toys are safe and affordable enough for experimentation.
Because there is no perfect product on the market, using these questions is one of the smartest things you can do. Later, when your eyes are rolling back in your head with pleasure over your wise purchase, see if you notice any brain growth. It’s possible to become a better consumer by being diligent in this way.
Fleshlight Maintenance Must-Knows
The upkeep requirements on some of these bastards might be somewhat discouraging for some men (namely the lazy ones). To determine whether buying the Fleshlight you want is a deal breaker or not, keep these maintenance tips in mind:
- Each toy and its relative sleeve needs to be cleaned thoroughly after every use.
- The manufacturer suggests using the brand’s renewal powder to keep the integrity of the SuperSkin material intact.
- The manufacturer also recommends using the brand’s patented toy cleaner instead of soap and water.
- Battery operated toys should be unplugged after each use and fully charged before turning them back on to extend the life of the operating system within.
- The toys should never be exposed to extreme hot or cold.
- The sleeve should never encounter extremely fuzzy, porous materials or loose debris.
- Each toy’s lining should be completely dry before using, especially if the sleeve is going into an electrically powered casing.
- Inadequate lube can make masturbation painful.
- All products should be hung to dry.
- Keep your toy covered at all times to prevent unwanted dust or other potentially harmful debris from settling on the good stuff.
If you take care of your Fleshlight, then it will take care of you. So, it ultimately won’t matter how much money you spend on the toy. Proper maintenance will make your purchase pay for itself.
Making a Dick-a-Licious Difference with Your Toy
There are numerous ways to make your experience masturbating with the Fleshlight of your choice the best thing since sliced bread. Aside from picking the right one and taking good care of it, a few techniques have been discovered and (thankfully) shared over the years. After all, the brand has been around for decades and offers hundreds of toy choices. There was bound to be an expert among us eventually. Check this shit out, but be prepared to bow down to the Gods of Sex:
- Use the sleeve warmer like you would use a good lube – absolutely and without delay.
- Pick an intense sleeve texture if you’re dick is hard to please, you want to increase your sexual stamina, and especially if you’re uncircumcised.
- Keep it real and go for something that’s on your skill level. You can always upgrade later once you get your mojo in check. There’s no shame in your game, so don’t add any.
- Practice using the product’s various features prior to expecting it to give you an amazing session. It’s always awkward the first time.
- Be sure the shower mount is very secure before attaching your Fleshlight device to it (hint: make sure your toy is fully waterproof too).
- Squirt a big dollop of lube down into the sleeve before going in, just to avoid an unnecessarily bumpy ride.
- Use the Fleshlight Girls Collection with the Launch device and a set of VR goggles to have the most realistic synthetic sex available in 2018.
- Double check your network connectivity before getting started when you’re using long-distance toys or Bluetooth compatible devices.
- Try the Fleshlight Launch with the Kiiroo Onyx 2 or Pearl 2 for a long-distance relationship booster that’s straight from the future.
- Avoid smelly toys and embarrassing moments by keeping yourself and your toy squeaky clean at all times. Stinky dicks are tricks, not treats.
- Try your toy in different ways: manually, hands-free, and with a partner to find out which method makes you cum the hardest.
Just like there’s nothing wrong with a little bump and grind, there’s also nothing wrong with experimenting with the limits while jerking it with a high-end sex toy. Today’s world is fully of well-made and high-tech creature comforts, and thankfully, those innovations have bled into the sex toy industry. Luckier still, the Fleshlight brand is on the forefront of that technological trend and it’s momentum is growing faster than your dick while watching porn.
The Famous Fleshlight: Did You Know?
Partially because the Fleshlight brand offers a huge array of products that are surprisingly affordable and competitively priced, they have now become more than a kinky household name. In certain social circles, the Fleshlight toy has become a collectible. In fact, the Freaks lineup is one of the most sought-after collectibles among this demographic. The Fleshlight Girls Collection? They’re in a league of their own, with thousands of collectors gobbling up the vaginal variety as if it were priceless art.
For a sex toy brand that was conceptualized and started by a completely square cop, the creativity of the inventory is a new testament to the unsung heroes among us. Making money off of manual masturbation and industry standard manufacturing isn’t a bad way to retire. Since the brand is made in the United States yet ships almost anywhere in the world, its popularity is bound to continue with its upward mobility.